Записки программиста, обо всем и ни о чем. Но, наверное, больше профессионального.

2010-07-02

Git

Git это распределенная система управления версиями (кода). Написал ее небезизвестный Линус, после того как его любимый BitKeeper намозолил всем глаза своей закрытостью. На мой взгляд, в Гит две основные фишки, которые отличают его от популярных систем, типа SVN или CVS. Это распределенность, которая заключается в том, что у каждого разработчика находится все содержимое репозитория а мощные механизмы branch-инга и merge-инга позволяют обходится без центрального сервера. И это заточка на скорость, эффективность создания, редактирования, принятия патчей.

Torvalds had several design criteria:

  1. Take CVS as an example of what not to do; if in doubt, make the exact opposite decision. To quote Torvalds, speaking somewhat tongue-in-cheek:

    "For the first 10 years of kernel maintenance, we literally used tarballs and patches, which is a much superior source control management system than CVS is, but I did end up using CVS for 7 years at a commercial company [Transmeta] and I hate it with a passion. When I say I hate CVS with a passion, I have to also say that if there are any SVN (Subversion) users in the audience, you might want to leave. Because my hatred of CVS has meant that I see Subversion as being the most pointless project ever started. The slogan of Subversion for a while was "CVS done right", or something like that, and if you start with that kind of slogan, there's nowhere you can go. There is no way to do CVS right."
  2. Support a distributed, BitKeeper-like workflow

    "BitKeeper was not only the first source control system that I ever felt was worth using at all, it was also the source control system that taught me why there's a point to them, and how you actually can do things. So Git in many ways, even though from a technical angle it is very very different from BitKeeper (which was another design goal, because I wanted to make it clear that it wasn't a BitKeeper clone), a lot of the flows we use with Git come directly from the flows we learned from BitKeeper."[11]
  3. Very strong safeguards against corruption, either accidental or malicious
  4. Very high performance

The first three criteria eliminated every pre-existing version control system except for Monotone, and the fourth excluded everything. So, immediately after the 2.6.12-rc2 Linux kernel development release, he set out to write his own.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Git_(software)

Что еще любопытно, распространение правок между репозиториями (копиями кода) заточено на электропочту.
В целом, если ваш стиль работы над проектом совпадает с таковым у Линуса (большой проект, слабо связанные разработчики), вам определенно нужен Git для повышения эффективности разработки.

Если раньше вы пользовались SVN.
10 приемчиков для начинающих. То же, но на русском.

Про венду и Oracle: зачем нужны тройные кавычки в командной строке?

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